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Potato cold storage preservation technology mainly includes three aspects: pre-harvest management, cold storage storage period management and delivery management. Let's learn about the temperature of the potato cold storage room and the precautions for management in the storage.
1. Temperature, humidity and gas composition management of potato cold storage
Cold storage fresh-keeping potatoes (potatoes) can be stored in fresh-keeping warehouses or controlled atmosphere warehouses. The temperature and humidity standards of potato (potato) fresh-keeping cold storage are as follows:
(1) Temperature management
Fresh-keeping cold storage or air-conditioning temperature is 3℃~5℃.
The storage temperature is required to reach the specified storage temperature within 48 hours, and the storage temperature must be stable during the entire storage period and the fluctuation should not exceed ±1°C.
When the temperature is higher than 5°C, individual molds start to move, and when the temperature is 8～11°C, the tuber respiration is strong, the fungus multiplies rapidly, and the tuber is prone to rot.
When the temperature is 0～1℃, the starch in the potato chunks begins to be converted into sugar, the taste becomes sweeter, and the seed potatoes deteriorate; when the temperature is lower than -1℃, the potato chunks are frozen, and then a lot of rot.
(2) Relative humidity management
The relative humidity of the potato cold storage is kept at 80%～90%.
If the humidity is higher than this, the potato pieces are easy to rot and germinate early; if the degree is too low, the potato pieces are easy to lose water, lose weight, become soft and shrink, and lose their edible and seed value.
(3) Management of gas environment in potato cold storage
The gas environment of the potato cold storage will affect the storage effect of potatoes. The management recommendations are as follows:
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①Gas environment management of potato fresh-keeping cold storage
The potato fresh-keeping warehouse is a relatively sealed environment, after being stored in the warehouse for a period of time.
Due to the respiration of the potato itself, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the reservoir will increase and the gas will become turbid.
Excessively high concentrations of carbon dioxide can cause "poisoning" of potatoes and even rot and deterioration of potatoes.
Therefore, it is recommended to ventilate the warehouse body, and choose the morning or evening when the temperature is lower. The warehouse is usually ventilated at least once a week.
②Gas environment management of potato controlled atmosphere storage
The gas environment of the potato controlled atmosphere storage is recommended to be controlled as: oxygen concentration 3%~5%, carbon dioxide concentration 2%~3%.
The respiration of potatoes is still going on after harvesting. Potatoes with too low oxygen content will be hypoxic. In some cases, they will lose their germination ability, and in severe cases, they will cause suffocating rot.
The appropriate concentration of carbon dioxide concentration can also slow down the respiration of fresh potatoes, which can effectively delay
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But the carbon dioxide concentration can not be too high, too high carbon dioxide will cause potatoes to be forced to undergo "anaerobic respiration".
refers to the process in which the respiratory substrate of potatoes cannot be completely oxidized under hypoxic conditions to produce alcohol, aldehyde, lactic acid and other products, and at the same time release a small amount of energy. The reaction equation is as follows:
Anaerobic respiration is not good for potato storage, it will consume more nutrients stored in potatoes and accelerate the aging of fruits and vegetables.
In addition to controlling the carbon dioxide and oxygen components, the air conditioning warehouse also controls the concentration of ethylene. Ethylene can quickly increase the respiratory intensity of potatoes and accelerate the ripening of potatoes. The ethylene removal machine of the air conditioning warehouse can control and reduce the concentration of ethylene.
(1) During the storage period, samples should be checked regularly to check whether the potatoes (potatoes) have disease, cold damage, color change, water loss and rot, and remove them in time if they are abnormal.
(2) The fresh-keeping warehouse should be well ventilated, which should be carried out at least once a week due to the temperature drop or in the evening.
2. Potato delivery management
After the cold storage storage period is over, the following three points need to be paid attention to when potatoes are shipped out of the warehouse:
The potatoes out of the warehouse should be slowly warmed up to prevent the dew and deterioration of the potatoes caused by the excessive temperature difference;
Attention during handling: handle, put, and move gently to avoid mechanical damage;
Cold chain transportation should be implemented for medium and long-distance transportation, and normal temperature transportation can be selected for medium- and short-distance transportation.